# Verifying The Functionality of VSD Mini Squadron Board By Implementing a Centade (0-99) BCD Counter

BCD stands for Binary-Coded Decimal. A BCD counter is a type of counter used in digital electronics and computing to represent decimal numbers using binary-coded decimal format. In BCD format, each decimal digit (0-9) is represented by a 4-bit binary code.
Example:

• Decimal `0` is represented as `0000` in BCD.
• Decimal `4` is represented as `0100` in BCD.
• Decimal `15` is represented as `0001 0101` in BCD.

• 8 LEDs ( 4 Blue & 4 Red )
• Eight 220 ohm Resistors
• Push button switch
• Jumper cables
• USB type-C or a 3.3V DC power source

As we can see from the above image,

• A push button which act as `trigger` is connected between `GND` & `PD1`.
• All the 8 LEDs have a common `GND` & each of their Anode is connected to a 220 ohms resistors.
• Ports `PC0` to `PC3` forms the `unit` digit & are connected to their respective LEDs with `PC0` being LSB (Least Significant Bit) & `PC3` being MSB (Most Significant Bit)
• Similarly, Ports `PD2` to `PD5` forms the `tens` digit & are connected to their respective LEDs with `PD2` being LSB (Least Significant Bit) & `P` being MSB (Most Significant Bit)

As we know the VSD Mini Board can be programmed in `embedded C`, below is the C code which programs the board to act as a BCD counter.

``````#include <ch32v00x.h>

// Define GPIO pins for the LEDs
#define UNIT_LSB_PIN GPIO_Pin_0  // LSB of the units digit
#define UNIT_MSB_PIN GPIO_Pin_3  // MSB of the units digit
#define TENS_LSB_PIN GPIO_Pin_2  // LSB of the tens digit
#define TENS_MSB_PIN GPIO_Pin_5  // MSB of the tens digit

// Function to initialize GPIO pins
void GPIO_Config(void) {
GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStructure;
RCC_APB2PeriphClockCmd(RCC_APB2Periph_GPIOD | RCC_APB2Periph_GPIOC | RCC_APB2Periph_GPIOD, ENABLE);

// Configure the reading pin on port D as digital input
GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin = GPIO_Pin_1;
GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Mode = GPIO_Mode_IPU; // Input with pull-up
GPIO_Init(GPIOD, &GPIO_InitStructure);

// Configure LEDs for units digit on port C as output
GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin = UNIT_LSB_PIN | GPIO_Pin_1 | GPIO_Pin_2 | UNIT_MSB_PIN;
GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Mode = GPIO_Mode_Out_PP;
GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Speed = GPIO_Speed_50MHz;
GPIO_Init(GPIOC, &GPIO_InitStructure);

// Configure LEDs for tens digit on port D as output
GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin = TENS_LSB_PIN | GPIO_Pin_3 | GPIO_Pin_4 | TENS_MSB_PIN;
GPIO_Init(GPIOD, &GPIO_InitStructure);
}

// Function to update the BCD counter display
void UpdateDisplay(uint8_t tens, uint8_t units) {
GPIO_Write(GPIOC, (GPIO_ReadOutputData(GPIOC) & 0xFFF0) | units); // Write units digit to port C
GPIO_Write(GPIOD, (GPIO_ReadOutputData(GPIOD) & 0xFFC3) | (tens << 2));  // Write tens digit to port D
}

// Simple delay function
void delay(uint32_t count) {
while(count--) {
__NOP(); // Do nothing (NOP instruction)
}
}

int main(void) {
uint8_t units = 0, tens = 0;
int prevButtonState = 1; // Initialize to high

GPIO_Config(); // Configure the GPIO

while(1) {
// Read the button state from pin D1

// Detect negative edge (1 to 0 transition)
if(!buttonState && prevButtonState) {
// Increment the BCD counter
units++;
if(units > 9) {
units = 0;
tens++;
if(tens > 9) {
tens = 0;
}
}
UpdateDisplay(tens, units); // Update the BCD display
}
prevButtonState = buttonState; // Update the previous button state

delay(10000); // Debounce delay
}
}
``````

The board is programmed to continuously monitor the voltage/state at port `PD1`. Upon detecting a negedge, which is the transition of voltage from 3.3v to 0v, it will increment the counter to the next state. This can be observed in the below video.

## Registration for Ethical RISC-V IoT Workshop

Welcome to Ethical RISC-V IoT Workshop

The “Ethical RISC-V IoT Workshop” at IIIT Bangalore, organized in collaboration with VSD, is a structured, educational competition aimed at exploring real-world challenges in IoT and embedded systems. Participants progress through three stages: building an application, injecting and managing faults, and enhancing application security. The event spans from May 9 to June 15, 2024, culminating in a showcase of top innovations and an award ceremony. This hands-on hackathon emphasizes learning, testing, and securing applications in a collaborative and competitive environment.

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